Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information- TU Note BBA,BBS

Bikram Adhikari- tu Note-HRM

There  is  no  shortage  of  methods  of  collecting  job  analysis  information.  They  only  thing  HR  managers have to do is choose a particular method which satisfies their need. Sometimes, they may use more than one method to minimize the possible errors in collecting informations. 

There are 7 ways by which job information can be gathered. They are: 

 1.     Observation  method:

 It  is  one  of  the  oldest  and  popular method used in Job analysis. This method is simple  and  can  be  used  in  combination  with  other  methods  also.  In  this  method,  the  individuals  doing  the  job  are  observed  by  trained  job  analysts.  They  record the relevant points of the job. The notes might include what was done and how it was done. Motion and   time   studies   are   examples   of   observations   methods. Direct   observation   of   staff   performing   their   jobs   helps to obtain first hand knowledge. This method is very  useful  for  routine  type  of  jobs  only,  not  suitable  for  complicated  jobs.  Again,  the  observer  must  know  what  has  to  be  noted  and  what  has  to  be  ignored.  Otherwise,  the  whole analysis might produce meaningless document/ information. Merits: 

(i)  It  can  also  offer  information  needed  to  prepare  job  specification. 

 (ii)  It  is  more  useful  method  to  analyze  the  jobs  which  are  repetitive  in  nature.  (iii)  It  also  offers  information related to job risks, machine and equipments required, etc., and 

(iv) It is more reliable than other methods.          


(i)  It  is  a  costly  method.  

(ii)  It  is  also  a  time  consuming  method.  

(iii)  All  the  information  cannot  be  collected  within  limited  period  of  observations.  

(iv)  It  is  very  difficult to use this method alone to analyze complex jobs.  

 2.     Questionnaire  method: 

The  questionnaire  method    is    popular    with    management    engineering  consultants.  They  are  hired  to  install   a   job   evaluation   plan   and   must   accomplish  a  lot  of  work  in  a  minimum  of  time.  Usually  the  procedure  involves  the  preparation of a detailed questionnaire. It is then      distributed      to      all      employees.      Concerned  employees  fill  it  on  company  time  and  return  it  to  their  supervisors  for  verification.  The  supervisor  is  supposed  to  discuss  any  errors  in  the  employees'  response  with them. If necessary s/he has to make corrections. Finally, the supervisors submit it to the  group  responsible  for  conducting  the  job  analysis  program  (i.e.  generally  the  P/HR  department). 


 (i) This method consumes a minimum times i.e. useful when time is very limited. 

(ii) It is relatively a less costly method. 

(iii) Allows involvement of experts, supervisors and jobholders. 

(iv) Accuracy is also high in this method.  


(i)  Not  suitable  for  critical  type  of  jobs,  

(ii)  It  can't  be  used  independently  i.e.  a  supplementary  method  is  also  necessary.  

(iii)  Employees  may  provide  rational  (not  practical) information.   

3.     Interview   method:

 Many   organizations   employ     (hire)     'Job     Analysts'     who     interview    the    employee    and/or    his    supervisor   to   obtain   all   the   relevant   information.  If  the  interview  of  both  the  supervisor and the employee is combined with  a  short  observation  at  the  job  by  a  trained  analyst,  this  method  constitutes  a  very  thorough  and  sound  approach.  It  is  the  most  widely  used  method.  But  this  method is time consuming and costly. However,   it   may   be   noted   that   the   personal  observation  and  interview  approach  are  more  or  less  complete  and  accurate.  In  most cases, interviews coupled with observation constitute the desirable approach.         


(i) It is one of the most used and trusted method. 

(ii) It offers two-way or face-to-face communication.

 (iii) Psychological aspect of the job can also be obtained.          


 (i)  It  is  time  consuming.  

(ii)  It  is  a  costly  method  because  it  demands  trend  experts  and  more  time.  

(iii)  This  method  is  highly  dependent  upon  employees  (to  avoid  errors use of other method is suggested).  

4.     Checklist method: 

The checklist method can be used in big organizations that have a large number  of  people  assigned  to  the  similar  jobs. The expert group must prepares a check list   for   each   of   the   various   jobs   in   the   enterprise.  Further  more  those  exports  must  at first collect enough information to prepare a meaningful checklist. Such information can be  obtained  by  asking  supervisors,  method  engineers and others familiar with the work. When a checklist has been prepared for a job, then it is sent to all supply clerks in all sections. The job holders are asked to check (√) all listed tasks that they perform. They are also asked to indicate by check mark the amount of time spent on each task as well as the training and experience required to be proficient in each task. They may also be asked to write in additional (required) tasks not contained on the  prepared  check  list.  This  method  is  very  costly  and  somewhat  impractical  for  small  organizations.


(i)  Very  helpful  method  for  big  organizations  (which  have  a  large  number  of  people  in  a  single  job).  

(ii)  Collection  of  information  demands  less  time.  

(iii)  It  is  more  accurate   (because   it   collects   information   from   multi-party).   

(iv)   Less   burden   to   the   employees than other methods.         


(i)  Preparation  of  checklist  is  costly  and  time  consuming  process.  

(ii)  Not  suitable  for  small  organizations  with  few  number  of  employees.  

(iii)  Difficult  to  reconcile  the information when they contradict.    

 5.     Daily   diary   method:   

The   daily   diary   method   requires  the  job  holders  to  record  in  detail  their  activities  throughout  each  day.  If  done  faithfully  this  technique  is  more  accurate.  It  also  eliminates  the error of memory recall of the questionnaire and checklist  method.  However,  this  method  adds  a  high  degree  of  extra  workload  to  each  employee.  Due to this reason this method is rarely used in practice.          


(i)  Offers  comprehensive  information  

(ii)  It  is  one  of  the  most  accurate  method. 

 (iii)  Less  costly  than  most  of  the  other  methods.  

(iv)  Reduces  the  weaknesses of memory recall and write approach.


(i)  Extra  burden  to  the  employees  throughout  the  year.  

(ii)  Workers  biasness  may  harm  this  method.  

(iii)  More  time  consuming  

(iv)  Easy  to  collect  but  difficult  to  compile the information.  

6. Conference of experts method: 

This technique of collecting job information is quite useful for  obtaining  various  viewpoints  and  an  overall  perspective  of  the  jobs.  This  method  utilizes supervisors with extensive knowledge of the job. Here, specific characteristics of a job  are  obtained  from  the  "experts".  Although,  it  is  a  good  data  gathering  method,  but  it  often  over  looks  the  incumbent  workers'  (jobholders)  perception  about  what  they  do  on  their job.          


 (i)     Helps     to     collect     different     and     overall     viewpoints     of     a     job         

 (ii) Offers more accurate information 

(iii) Useful method for critical jobs (where we do not have past information about a particular job).         


(i)  It  is  expensive  and  time  consuming  method.  

(ii)  Not  suitable  for  simple  category jobs.

 (iii) It does not involve the jobholders.

7.      Combination  of  two  or  more  methods:  

Above  six  methods  should  not  be  viewed  as  mutually   exclusive.   No   one   method   is   universally   superior.   Even   obtaining   job   information from the incumbents may create a problem. Problem arises especially if these individuals  describe  what  they  feel  they  should  be  doing  rather  than  what  they  actually  do.  Therefore,  the  best  results,  are  usually  achieved  with  some  combination  of  methods.  That  is  the  information  provided  by  individual  employees,  their  immediate  supervisors  and a professional analyst are combined together. This helps to minimize the errors.          


(i) It maximizes accuracy 

(ii) Involves multi-party 

(iii) Reduces several weaknesses of single method.           


(i)  More  time  consuming  

(ii)  It  is  very  costly  

(iii)  Not  suitable  for  small  organization and simple type of jobs.

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