Branches of Psychology - BBA BBS TU note

Branches of Psychology

 There  are different  branches  of  psychology  that  serve  different  purposes.  There  is no fixed way of classifying them, but here are some common types: 

Clinical Psychology

 Clinical   psychology   integrates   science,   theory,   and   practice   in   order   to   understand,  predict  and  mitigate  problems  with  adjustment,  disability,  and  discomfort.  It  promotes  adoption,  adjustment,  and  personal  development.  A  clinical   psychologist   concentrates   on   the   intellectual,   emotional,   biological,   psychological, social, and behavioral aspects of human performance throughout a   person's   life,   across   varying   cultures   and   socioeconomic   levels.   Clinical   psychology  can  help  us  to  understand,  prevent,  and  alleviate  psychologically-caused  distress  or  dysfunction,  and  promote  an  individual's  well-being  and  personal development. 

Cognitive Psychology 

Cognitive  psychology investigates  internal  mental  processes,  such  as  problem  solving, memory, learning, and language. It looks at how people think, perceive, communicate,   remember,   and   learn.   It   is   closely   related   to   neuroscience,   philosophy, and linguistics. Cognitive psychologists look at how people acquire, process,  and  store  information.  Practical  applications  include  how  to  improve  memory,  increase  the  accuracy  of  decision-making,  or  how  to  set  up  business  programs to increase ethical business and profit.

Developmental Psychology 

This  is  the  scientific  study  of  systematic  psychological  changes  that  a  person  experiences  over  the  life  span,  often  referred  to  as  human  development.  It  focuses  not  only  on  infants  and  young  children  but  also  teenagers,  adults,  and older   people.   Developmental   psychology   include   factors   like   motor   skills,   problem   solving,   and   moral   understanding,   acquiring   language,   emotions,   personality,  self-concept,  and  identity  formation  and  so  forth.  It  also  looks  at  innate mental structures against learning through experience, or how a person's characteristics   interact   with   environmental   factors   and   how   this   affects   development.

Evolutionary Psychology 

Evolutionary  psychology  looks  at  how  human  behavior,  for  example  language,  has    been    affected    by    psychological    adjustments    during    evolution.    An    evolutionary  psychologist  believes  that  many  human  psychological  behaviors  are adaptive in that they have enabled us to survive over thousands of years. It aims to explain all of our thought processes, emotions and actions in terms of the previous survival advantages they would have granted us in the wild.

Forensic Psychology 

Forensic psychology involves applying psychology to criminal investigation and the  law.  A  forensic  psychologist  practices  psychology  as  a  science  within  the  criminal justice system and civil courts. It involves assessing the psychological factors  that  might  influence  a  case  or  behavior  and  presenting  the  findings  in  court.  So,  we  can  take  it  as  the  intersection  between  psychology  and  justice  system.

Health Psychology 

Health  psychology  is  also  called  behavioral  medicine  or  medical  psychology.  It  observes how behavior, biology, and social context influence illness and health. A  physician  often  looks  first  at  the  biological  causes  of  a  disease,  but  a  health  psychologist  will  focus  on  the  whole  person  and  what  influences  their  health  status. This may include their socioeconomic status, education, background, and behaviors  that  may  have  an  impact  on  the  disease,  such  as  compliance  with  instructions and medication. Health psychologists usually work alongside other medical professionals in clinical settings


Neuropsychology  looks  at  the  structure  and  function  of  the  brain  in  relation  to  behaviors and psychological processes. A neuropsychology may be involved if a condition  involves  lesion  in  the  brain,  and  assessments  that  involve  recording  electrical  activity  in  the  brain.  A  neuropsychological  evaluation  is  used  to  determine   whether   a   person   is   likely   to   experience   behavioral   problems   following suspected or diagnosed brain injury, such as a stroke. The results can enable  a  doctor  to  provide  treatment  that  may  help  the  individual  achieve  possible improvements in cognitive damage that has occurred.

Occupational Psychology

 In  a  corporate  setting,  a  psychologist  can  help  boost  productivity  and  enhance  employee  retention.Occupational  or  organizational  psychologists  are  involved  in  assessing  and  making  recommendations  about  the  performance  of  people  at  work  and  in  training.  They  help  companies  to  find  more  effective  ways  to  function,  and  to  understand  how  people  and  groups  behave  at  work.  This  information  can  help  improve  effectiveness,  efficiency,  job  satisfaction,  and  employee retention.

 Social Psychology 

Social  psychology  uses  scientific  methods  to  understand  how  social  influences  affect human behavior. It seeks to explain how feelings, behavior, and thoughts are  influenced  by  the  actual,  imagined  or  implied  presence  of  other  people.  A  social   psychologist   looks   at   group   behavior,   social   perception,   non-verbal   behavior,  conformity,  aggression,  prejudice,  and  leadership.  Social  perception  and social interaction are seen as key to understanding social behavior.  

Counseling Psychology 

This  subfield  of  psychology  assists  individuals  in  dealing  with  many  personal  problems  that  do  not  involve  psychological  disorders.    It  is  a  psychological  specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counseling  process  and  outcome;  supervision  and  training;  career  development  and  counseling;  and  prevention  and  health.  Some  unifying  themes  among  counselingpsychologists  include  a  focus  on  assets  and  strengths,  person–environment     interactions,     educational     and     career     development,     brief     interactions, and a focus on intact personalities.

 Educational Psychology 

Educational psychology deals with all aspects of the educational process. It is the branch  of psychology concerned  with  the scientific  study  of  human  learning.  The    study    of    learning    processes,    from    both    cognitive    and    behavioral    perspectives,   allows   researchers   to   understand   individual   differences   in   intelligence,  cognitive  development,  affect,  motivation,  self-regulation,  and  self-concept, as well as their role in learning. 

Experimental Psychology 

Experimental    Psychology    is    the    basic    psychological    process    including    perception,  learning  and  motivation.  It  refers  to  work  done  by  those  who  apply   experimental   methods   to   psychological   study   and   the   processes   that   underlie  it.  Experimental  psychologists  employ  human  participants  and  animal  subjects to study a great many topics. 

Industrial/organizational psychology 

Industrial/organizational  psychology  studies  all  aspects  of  behavior  in  work  settings.  It  is  the  branch  of  psychology  that  applies  psychological  theories  and  principles  to  organizations.  Often  referred  to  as  I-O  psychology,  this  field focuses  on  increasing  workplace  productivity  and  related  issues  such  as  the  physical    and    mental    well-being    of    employees.    Industrial-organizational    psychologists  perform  a  wide  variety  of  tasks,  including  studying  worker  attitudes   and   behavior,   evaluating   companies,   and   conducting   leadership   training.  The  overall  goal  of  this  field  is  to  study  and  understand  human  behavior in the workplace. 


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