Human Resource Development-HRM-Bikram Adhikari

Human    resource    refers    to    the    human power or  skill or knowledgerequired for carrying  out any work. It is also called workforce or human force  and  mind-power.  The  work  done  through  human   resource   might   either   apply   manual, mechanical or mind force.  And, such work can be classified into four major types:

a) Primary:Producing   raw   materials   for   subsistence use or commercial purpose (farming, forestry, fishing, mining, etc.)

b) Secondary:Producing  goods  by  using  different  raw  materials  (processing  food  grains,  production of goods in factory, construction of buildings, handicrafts, etc.)

c) Tertiary:Providing services or utilities to other (transportation, communication, pharmacy, government jobs, shop keeping, hotels, restaurants, teaching, etc.)

d) Others:Expert   services   or   works   (research,   invention,   discovery,   planning   and   programming, etc.)

Whatever the nature of work might be, a country needs human resources of all sorts. To say precisely, human resource is a key in bringing economic, social, cultural and scientific prosperity in a nation.

Types of Human Resource

Human  resource can be classified on a number of grounds. All of these are equally important for the  smooth  progress  of  a  nation.  Nevertheless,  we  cannot  ignore  that  skilled  and  sustainable  human resource hold a greater significance since it can produce and mobilize all types of human resources required and available.

Based on Skill and Nature of Work

Unskilled: Those  workforce  with  little  skill  but  have  to  do  manual  work.  Examples: labourers, workers, porters, etc.

Semi-skilled: Those not having perfect expertise, skill and efficiency but can carry out  the basic work of their field. Examples: drivers, plumbers, electricians, etc.

Skilled: Those having full expertise, skill and efficiency, and can carry out work independently. Examples:  engineers, doctors, teachers, etc.However, some experts have  even added one more category in the list i.e. highly skilled.

Skilled human resource holds more importance than other two.

Based on Tenure of Service

Based on tenure of service, human resources can be categorized into three types.

Short-term Human Resource:

It is the human power prepared for fulfilling the short-term  or  immediate  needs  of  a  nation.  For  instance,  census  enumerator,  volunteer,  rescuer, temporary police during election, plant harvesters, paper folders, etc.

Long-term  Human  Resource:

The  workforce  prepared  for  fulfilling  both  the immediate and future needs of a country is long-term human resource. Its examples include civil servants, police, army, etc. Their direct contribution gets over after a fixed tenure in work. Once retired, they do not tend to become too active.

Sustainable Human Resource:

This is the human power that can serve throughout life once the knowledge or skill is gained and updated timely. Teachers, doctors, engineers, planners, etc. fall under this category.

Among all, sustainable human resource has the greatest significance for the national development.

Human Resource Development (HRD) and Human Resource Management (HRM)

Both the human resource development and human resource management are integral parts  of  human  resource.  The  preparation  or  production  of  human  resource  for  any  development  work  is  understood  as  HR  development.  Actually, HR development is the framework for equipping employees with their  personal  and  organizational  skills,  knowledge  and  abilities  for  better  output in an organization. It builds up confidence, sharpens skill and boosts up the morale of the employees.  It  can  be  prepared  and  updated  through  education,  timely  trainings,  seminars  and  market surveys.

Need of Human Resource Development

Human  resources  should  be  developed  so  that  they  can  be  recruited  and  mobilized  according to necessities.

Workforce  needs  to  be  cut  off  or  increased  sometimes  according  to  situations  such  as  over  or  under-staffing.  Human  resource  development  becomes  useful  in  such situations.

Development of diversified human resource can be mobilized for diversified works.

It can also supply demand of workforce in the nation.

Different  acts  done  for  development  of  employees  boost  up  motivation  in  them  and  their work efficiency increases.

Due  to  increased  work  efficiency,  productivity  of  an  organization  and  the  whole country can be increased

Human Resource Management (HRM)

Human  Resource  Management,  on  the  other  hand,  refers  to  the  formal  systemdevised for the management of workforce within an organization. It is the process of hiring and developing employees, and treating them as valuable assets. HRM includes job analysis, planning, recruiting right personnel, orienting and training, managing  wages,  salaries  and  incentives,  and  evaluating  performances.  An  HR  manager has threemajor responsibilities to maximize employees' performance in service: staffing, employee compensation, and defining or designing work.

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